Things I Learned from How the Word is Passed – Part II

Last week’s blog post, Things I Learned from How the Word is Passed – Part I  covered some of the things I learned about Monticello Plantation and the Whitney Plantation from How the Word is Passed: A Reckoning with the History of Slavery Across America, by Clint Smith. Today I share with you some of the things I learned about Angola Prison, Blandford Cemetery, and New York City from the book.

There was just too much information in this book to give it appropriate time in one or two blog posts, so I’ll wrap this up next Monday. Needless to say, I highly recommend the book. I’m just hitting the high points in my blog posts.

Angola Prison

The Louisiana State Penitentiary is known by many as Angola Prison. The author was accompanied to the prison by a Black man, Norris, who spent almost 30 years imprisoned there for a crime he didn’t commit. He wants to show people the connection between Whitney Plantation and Angola Prison.

Norris said if we want to end mass incarceration, we must get at the history of it, the reason it still exists, and what that looks like.

Photo credit: Karsten Winegeart on

After the Civil War there was a change in policy in Louisiana not to require unanimous jury convictions. It was meant to funnel Blacks into the convict leasing system. Convict leasing partly replaced the labor force lost when slavery ended. The 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution allows involuntary servitude as a punishment for crimes committed. Under the convict leasing program, prisoners (mostly Black) could be rented out to individuals and companies. Railroads, plantations, and businesses took advantage of the program. Due to the program, most Angola inmates leased out lived no more than six years because the leasing assignments were often gruesome.

The book goes into more detail about how the laws governing juries changed over the decades, not always to the good.

The author (and I) found it interesting that the tour of Angola Prison begins in the gift shop. A gift shop at a state penitentiary. Such things as shot glasses, sunglasses, and T-shirts with the name of the prison on them are sold.

There is no mention in the prison museum that the place used to be a plantation.

I visited the prison’s website last week and was struck by how it is presented as a tourist destination. I don’t know about you, but when I go on a vacation it never occurs to me to work an operational prison tour or prison rodeo – I’m not making that up! – into my agenda.

Blandford Cemetery

Blandford Cemetery is in Petersburg, Virginia. It started as the cemetery for Blandford Anglican Church. It was deconsecrated in 1806 when the congregation decided to move to a more central location. After the Civil War a group of southern women were distressed over how their dead soldiers weren’t being honored like the Union soldiers. There was a 15-year effort to dig up Confederate dead and send them home for reburial, but 30,000 of the 32,200 could not be identified and they remain at Blandford.

Historical marker at Blandford Church and Cemetery, Petersburg, Virginia

The City of Petersburg gave the Ladies Memorial Association the abandoned church as a focal point for the cemetery. They commissioned Tiffany Studios to design stained-glass windows but couldn’t afford the usual $1,700 per window price. They couldn’t afford the $300 per window discounted price, so they went to the Confederate and border states and told them to raise the money. Saints are depicted in 11 of the 13 windows. There are state seals and inscriptions tying the Confederate dead to such things as “the Army of Heaven” in the case of South Carolina.

Before leaving Blandford, the author had an opportunity to talk to the woman in charge there. She seemed uncomfortable fielding his questions and appeared to be uncomfortable that a stack of flyers advertising a Memorial Day event hosted by the Sons of Confederate Veterans that was easily visible on the counter.

This chapter also included some facts and theories about Robert E. Lee.

The author closes the chapter by wondering if we’re all “just patchworks of the stories we’ve been told. What would it take – what does it take – for you to confront a false history even if it means shattering the stories you have been told throughout your life? Even if it means having to fundamentally reexamine who you are and who your family has been? Just because something is difficult to accept doesn’t mean you should refuse to accept it. Just because someone tells you a story doesn’t make that story true.”

To me, that is the unspoken theme of the book.

New York City

Like me, you might have wondered why there is a chapter about New York City in How the Word is Passed.

This chapter is a real eye-opener! As with all the other chapters, I learned more from this chapter than I can possibly include in this blog post.

The author went to the National Museum of the American Indian for a walking tour about slavery and the Underground Railroad. The guide began by telling participants that many things she was going to tell them would make them uncomfortable but that would be all right. We learn by having our beliefs and our misinformation questioned. (I loved this woman already and I wasn’t even there!)

The tour included lots of general facts about slavery. The guide explained that slavery in the United States was different from slavery throughout world history. Historically, people were enslaved after taken prisoners of war or in payment of a debt. These enslavements were usually for a limited time and rarely involved the descendants of the enslaved. Slavery in the U.S. was based on racism and the widely-held belief in Europe that Africans were genetically inferior or subhuman. Skin pigmentation was the defining factor

Owning land and things was a European concept. The Dutch brought the first African slaves to the U.S. (present-day New York City). Eventually, some of the slaves were freed and given land. They weren’t gifted land due to the benevolence of the Dutch, though. The Dutch wanted Blacks to serve as a buffer between them and the Indians.

The British took over New York City in 1664. “According to historian David Brion Davis, around 40 percent of households in British Manhattan owned enslaved people. The practice of keeping female slaves in town to care for homes and white children and sending male slaves outside the city for agricultural work resulted in the slaves not having many children. In turn, this made the transatlantic slave trade more necessary for economic purposes.

In 1712, there was a slave uprising in New York. In it, 25 to 50 slaves killed nine white people. The result? “More than seventy Black people were arrested, forty-three brought to trial, and twenty-three executed – some hanged and others burned at the stake.”

Just before the American Revolution, there were 3,000 slaves in New York City and another 20,000 within 50 miles of Manhattan.

The second largest slave market in the United States was on present-day Wall Street between Pearl and Water Streets in Manhattan, New York City. Did you know that? I certainly didn’t! (The largest slave market in the country was at Charleston, South Carolina.)

Photo credit:

Thinking about the banks he could see from the site of the slave market, Mr. Smith delved a little deeper. He discovered the predecessors of several of the largest banks in the United States had accepted slaves as collateral for debts.

The author’s tour guide said, “ʻOne of the biggest lies we are still telling in this century – and I know because I’m trying to combat it – [is that] during the Civil War we were the good guys, right? New York City was good. Everybody else in the South, they were bad.’”

I think that’s a good place for me to stop sharing what Mr. Smith had to say about New York City, although I could go on about such things as the Underground Railroad, a huge slave and free Black cemetery that’s been built over, and the predominately Black village that was destroyed so Central Park could be built.

Since my last blog post

I continue to work on biographical sketches of the characters in my novel. I’ve taken a couple of days off from my writing project this week. I tend to get too serious about my self-inflicted to-do lists. I’m trying to lighten up on myself.

Friday night I worked on genealogy, one of my favorite hobbies. I found lots of interesting information on Now, all (Ha ha!) I have to do is make sure I can duplicate the research these other people have done before I add it to my family tree. The problem with genealogy is with every new generation you discover, you want to add another one. This hobby is never finished.

Until my next blog post

I hope you have a good book to read.

My blog post next Monday with be about Galveston Island, Goree Island, and the Epilogue in How the Word is Passed, by Clint Smith.


11 thoughts on “Things I Learned from How the Word is Passed – Part II

  1. The book, as you explained some things about it before, remains interesting, but although I did understand your previous reply to my musings, I still do not understand why bring out all these books, videos, museums and other sources of knowledge of information about slaves at this time. Slavery, to me, is a thing of the past. The slavery that does go on in the world today does not occur in western or in industrialised First World countries. It does go on illegally with mafias and other criminal organisations, mostly stemming from Russia and other ex-Soviet block countries, like Albania and Kosovo…yet, I see a growing number of books, films et cetera, about slavery in the US. Well, slavery was prevalent all over the world, but most of the world, including Sub-Sahara Africa, have forgotten about it. But, in any event, as a history, it is as fascinating as all history is to me and to all of us who love history. I am glad to hear you are studying your genealogy. I was always fascinated with it. Mine is rather simple: Iberian and Italian. No mystery, no surprises. The character study that you are conducting is a great idea and you are providing a valuable example and lesson to all of us who also aspire to write a book. I have enjoyed this post, as I have all your posts in your blog, and I am certainly learning more and more of the US, especially of the South, a region that I truly like, although South Florida is the “North”. Cheers Janet, for all your enthusiasm and all your work.

    Liked by 2 people

  2. I see what you’re saying about slavery. I believe what we should learn from the books, museums, etc. about slavery in America is the lasting effects it has had on our society even until today. The schools in my county were racially segregated until I was in the 7th grade. Until then, the schools for black children were in theory “separate but equal.” We know now that they were only separate. After the schools were desegregated, we whites believed that everything was then equal. What I’ve come to realize in recent years is that there was still not equal opportunity. I was wrong to ever think we all had an equal opportunity. It’s one of those things Americans believe about our country but in actuality has never been the case. I falsely believed that once the schools were desegregated that all students were playing on the same level playing field. That just wasn’t true, and I’m afraid there’s a bigger gap now between the haves and have-nots than there was 50 years ago. There are exceptions in which poor whites and poor blacks have beaten the odds and excelled, but it still is and forever will be much more difficult for poor whites and poor blacks to attain a level of economic comfort and personal security and safety — no matter how hard they work. I’ve never feared being attacked because I had white skin, but it has come to my attention in the last several years that my black peers are faced with that fear every time they leave their homes. A black friend confided in my sister recently that before she leaves her house for any reason she prays that she won’t be accosted and called names due to the color of her skin. I have taken my feeling of personal security for granted my entire life. This friend’s comment was a wake-up call for me. I’m not expressing this very well, but my point is that there are basic human needs and rights at stake in America today that are a direct result of our history of slavery and the mis-telling of that history. I’m not sure how we correct this situation, but the perpetuation of myths and teaching history only from the white man’s point-of-view has led us to a volatile society in 2021. There are racial misunderstandings and injustices that have festered and been swept under the carpet. The rhetoric of Trump and his ilk pulled the scab off the old wounds and emboldened hateful white people to express their narrow-mindedness and feelings of superiority in ways they used to be embarrassed to do. With the presidential campaign of 2016, America lost much of its innocence and civility. Oh well. Maybe that’s all or more than I should say on the topic. I’ll wrap up what I have to say about How the Word is Passed in my blog next Monday. I don’t want to beat a dead horse, but I’ll always welcome your thoughts and comments. I know they come from your heart and your experience — and I need to hear them. All the best from a hot and humid North Carolina. Janet

    Liked by 1 person

  3. (Continuation) I never thought about race because in my country we are all white and only now am I seeing black people in Spain. Of course, they are immigrants who are good athletes and the government has given them nationality so they can represent Spain in international competitions like the Olympics, or in the national football team. I am glad to learn more and yes, I saw how the racists and bigots really felt emboldened when Trump was president. And the experience you narrated of the Black girl being afraid is something incredible that it should happen in this XXIst C. I truly appreciate your words and thank you for a learning experience. All the best Janet.

    Liked by 1 person

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.